The Revolution of the Printed Circuit Boards

PCBThe evolution of technology has been phenomenal. The devices that people now use and take for granted are several orders of magnitude more powerful and more compact than those used by people a few decades ago. If these devices existed during those times, they would have been considered technological miracles. Modern technology owes it all to a simple but ingenious device: the printed circuit board.

What really makes printed circuit boards so special? These devices are able to fit a very large number of electric circuits into a compact space. Circuits do the majority of the work done by most electric devices, enabling them to respond to input, do some processing, and produce output. Putting more circuits enables devices to carry out more complicated work.

Printed circuit boards contain a substrate on which some layers of conducting material are printed, hence their name. Various electrical components, which form part of the circuits, are also attached on the circuit boards.

Copper is used often in the conducting layers –

This metal conducts electricity well and does not corrode easily. It is also abundant and cheap, making them a good choice among manufacturers. The copper layer forms the circuits present on the board. During the manufacturing process, some copper is removed, leaving only narrow copper pathways on the board. Once operational, electricity will flow through these pathways, powering the different electrical components on the board.

A thin protective layer of tin-lead is applied on the copper to help it resist any corrosion. A printed circuit board can be easily destroyed by short circuits. As a precaution, many circuit boards have an additional layer, called the solder mask, which protects the circuit board from short circuits. Another layer called the silkscreen layer may also be present. It marks symbols and text on the surface, enabling people to understand the different parts of the board.

Conversely, the substrate contains non-conducting material. Usually, fiberglass or plastic is used for this purpose. The main purpose of the substrate is to attach all of the other components of the printed circuit board firmly, especially the conductive layers. The substrate also provides some protection from mechanical shocks, usually caused by rough handling.
Since fiberglass is comparatively expensive, lower-end models primarily use plastic. Although both are acceptable substrates, plastic is inferior to fiberglass due to its lower thermal tolerance. When soldering components, the heat may cause the plastic to deform or release noxious fumes.

There are roughly three types of printed circuit boards, classified by increasing complexity: single-layered boards, double-layered boards, and multi-sided boards.


The first type has only one layer of conductive material –

PCB Fabrication

Typically, the components are attached on the side opposite the conductive layer. The second type has two layers of conductive material, which cover both sides of the board. Double-layered boards are inherently more difficult to manufacture, but can handle more complicated circuits. The two conductive layers are connected by special holes lined with a conductive material. These holes enable circuits on one side to interact with circuits on the other side. The third type has multiple conductive layers. These layers are placed between substrate layers to prevent any short circuits. The conductive layers are connected to each other using the holes described earlier. The depth of the holes determines which layers are connected. Multi-layered boards are harder to manufacture and cost more, but they provide more computing power than other types.

Other components may also be present on the printed circuit board. These components, ranging from light-emitting diodes to integrated circuits, actually do most of the work of the circuit board. The circuit board functions as a medium by which these components can interact. This does not mean though that circuit boards are useless. Without them, manufacturers would have had to use traditional wiring to connect the electrical components together. Aside from being time-consuming and resource-draining, this process also makes the device clunkier and more likely to malfunction.

The use of printed circuit boards has made it possible to create more powerful and more compact devices. As technology continues to improve, people can expect to see more powerful versions of the printed circuit board to emerge.

Any printed circuit boards is probably the fundamental elements of electronic apparatus. It is necessary since it will serve since the coronary heart with the consumer electronics, generating everything function.

The Wonderful World Of Designing Patches

Everyone wants to be identified and establish his or her place in this world. This is why jobs, memberships, and affiliations have all become part of people’s identities. Whenever we are part of something big, we would surely want to let the whole world know about it.

Significant Uses Of Patches Are:

Most organizations use embroidered patches sewn on uniforms in order to signify their brand or service. Wearing uniforms with patch on them, whether it’s in the medical field, the military, the police, sports, or even interest clubs, helps the wearer feel more proud and passionate about being identified with their respective groups.


Apart from being used in uniforms, some people also collect embroidered patch to remember places they’ve been to, events they’ve taken part of, or contests they’ve won. These add-ons also serve to mark important milestones in one’s life. Some organizations use them to mark a member’s achievements or contributions, and carefully crafted ones serve to represent the person’s pride and glory. For some people, the use of patches has more of a utilitarian purpose, such as using them to cover up damaged bags or clothing, therefore making the apparel wearable again.

If you’re wondering what these are made of, well, they are actually crafted with a kind of backing, some thread, and a needle. Once the design is sewn intricately onto the backing, the patch can be attached to clothing with the use of a pin, thread, heat-activated adhesive, Velcro, or iron-on material. No matter what the backing or attachment type is, they key to crafting a perfectly embroidered patch lies in the design itself. You might think it’s a complicated process to come up with a great design, but that is not necessarily the case, especially if you’ll be working with a very talented design team such as ours.

Our company understands our clients’ needs. We know how important it is to get good value for your money. This is why our creative team is ready to hold your hand through the whole conceptualization process. Once this is done, then manufacturing the patches will just be a piece of cake. Most companies or groups already have a logo to work with, which is a good thing, and will make it a whole lot easier for us to proceed with the manufacturing phase. But, for other organizations that are still starting out or are undergoing a redesign process, then that is where our expertise comes in.

We offer a wide range of backing options to choose from such as tape backing, iron-on backing, Velcro backing, button loop backing, as well as plastic backing. Tape backings are easily removable and are a good choice for when the use of the patch is only semi-permanent. Iron-on backings allow for fast and easy attachment, and all you need is a flat iron and a thin damp towel to hold over the patch until the patch is fully secured.

Velcro backings allow for easy removal from the clothing and are perfect for when the wearer needs to use various patches for different occasions. Button loop backings are also convenient because they are made to hang from a button or a pin, and no thread or glue is needed for attaching the patch. Lastly, plastic backings are good for when you need extra support for your patch, which ensure that they will maintain their shape through wear and tear and after several washes.


We also have different patch borders to choose from such as the hot cut edge border and the Merrow border. Hot cut edges have sharp and detailed edges and are perfect for those who have more intricate designs in mind. Merrow borders entail a kind of overlocking, which involves wrapping the thread around the fabric, creating a more type uniform stitching, which is perfect for the more classic patch designs.

We also have metallic thread options to make the embroidered patch more eye-catching. We also have a wide range of thread colors to choose from to suit your custom design. Our company knows that the use of these things is very important to organizations or institutes looking to make their brand or service known to the rest of the world. That is why we ensure that the patches come out perfectly each time and the ones wearing them will feel proud to be members of the group or organization to which they belong.

Custom patches gives a great look without the high cost. Embroidered patches and iron-on patches developed specifically to your group’s special patches design needs are all we do.


Why You Need Keynote Speakers

Regardless of the event you’re holding, you’ll need a keynote speaker. We’re telling you – keynote speakers have the power to make or break your event. But of course, enough of ‘breaking’ – we’re here to discuss why you absolutely have to have at least one keynote speaker at your event.

So why do you need to go for keynote speakers?

Grabs Attention

Imagine an event without a keynote speaker. Your audience will be scattered and you’ll find it hard to grab their attention. It’s not easy to gather them all… and that’s when a keynote speaker comes in.

What will your speaker do? Your keynote speaker can talk about different messages and connect them all together in a way that your guests will be attentive and take notice.

For these purposes, the best kind of keynote speaker is a celebrity well-known for the topic he or she’ll be discussing. One word, and you’ll have everyone looking.


Provides Knowledge

Introducing a particular topic, product or service? One of the best ways you can present this new concept is through a keynote speaker who have expansive knowledge about the topic.

The speaker can discuss what this new concept is, and the audience can throw questions should they need clarifications or further description of the topic. It won’t be hard for him or her to respond; after all, he was asked to talk because of his clear understanding of the topic.

Inspires the Audience

Your keynote speaker can fire your audience up and get them focused. Want your audience to be pushed on a certain direction? Your keynote speaker can make it happen.

These keynote speakers usually are those who have succeeded amidst all the difficulties – those who can confidently say they have survived regardless of the troubles life threw them.

Presents New Perspectives

Are you one of those people who have become used to their current situation and is no longer looking for a new way to proceed with their everyday lives? We’re telling you, it’s not fun to get stuck. Go for change – especially if it’s changing for the better.

Not yet convinced? Well, there are keynote speakers who can perfectly talk you out of it. They’re there to provide a new outlook that perhaps your audience can consider. These speakers are able to let you think out of the box and let you out of your comfort zone so you can have a completely new outlook in life.


Promotes Enthusiasm

One quality of a good keynote speaker is that he can liven up the whole floor just with his words. He can inspire and cheer all of us into doing something new; he can make us enthusiastic and joyful. With his words, we can have a new goal to look forward to.

He can also inspire your employees to work together and cooperate, hence move forward to improve productivity. He can interrupt your and your colleagues’ thinking patterns and get you to realize that you’re capable of doing better – and capable of doing so much more.


Let’s face it – hiring keynote speakers can be costly, but the benefits you get out of it will definitely be worth every penny. It’s like making an investment; the money you shell out today will be fruitful tomorrow, and it’s more fruitful than what you’ve expected.
Speakers are capable of doing a lot – sharing their knowledge, experience, enthusiasm, and so much more – and they’re willing to let everyone know in your team how they got to where they are now. Wouldn’t you want to hear their stories? Who knows, you’d be like them someday.

What are you waiting for? If you’re celebrating a special occasion, conducting a business gathering or simply discussing an important topic, then don’t hesitate to have a keynote speaker. We’ll make sure you’ll have the knowledge, motivation, teamwork and enthusiasm you need; here at, we can help you out.

Find the Best Golf Club

Finding the best golf club is just like looking for a lifetime partner. You need your best golf club to complement your style and personality. That is why you need to equip yourself with the right knowledge as to what type of golf clubs you should have. Rockbottomgolf offers all kinds of golf clubs for your specific needs.

Not all golf clubs are created equal. There are different types of golf clubs for every need. It can get confusing sometimes. At rockbottomgolf, there are all types of golf clubs that can be used in different situations. Here is a list of the basic golf clubs and what you should use them for.


The driver is among the wood set. Wood clubs are used to produce great distances.Woods in a set are numbered 1 to 5, with the 1-wood having the longest shaft. Before, the head of the wood club is made of persimmon or hickory wood, thus the name. However, modern woods are made of other materials but it is still called woods to denote the size and the shape of the head. The driver, also known as the 1-wood, is the biggest and least lofted club in a set of golf clubs. The driver is most commonly used to drive a ball off a tee. It can produce a large distance when you strike the ball well.
Golf Clubs

Fairway Woods

Fairway woods belong to the wood set, typically having the numbers 3 or 5. Fairway woods are usually used after a tee shot using a driver. They are used off the fairway, thus the name. Like a driver, fairway woods have large heads. However, they are more lofted and shallower. It also has a lower spot at the bottom of the club.


Hybrids are also commonly known as rescue clubs. It is a cross between a fairway wood and an iron. The club of a hybrid is rounded just like a wood club but its face is similar to that of an iron. Hybrids are designed to have intense accuracy but they produce less distance. They are the most versatile golf club.


Irons range from 1 to 9, with 5 to 9 as the most commonly used. Hybrids are typically used to replace the lower-numbered irons as 1-iron and 2-iron are really tricky to master. Irons are thin faced which makes them perfect for slicing through rough sand. Irons are most commonly used off the ground or when they need to hit the ball at maximum 200 yards towards the green.

Best Golf Clubs


Wedges have a very similar face to that of Iron clubs but the face of a wedge is more open, which allows it to send the ball at a higher and shorter distance. A wedge set will generally include a sand wedge and a pitching wedge. A sand wedge is used to toss the ball off the tall grass or to dig the ball from the bunkers. A pitching wedge is used to shoot a ball 130 yards towards the green. A wedge set may also include a gap wedge and a lob wedge. A gap wedge is used to hit the ball at full swing at 110 yards to the green. A lob wedge is used to hit the ball when it needs to rise quickly and clear out a hazard.


A chipper, also known as a putter chipper, has a head that is just like that of a putter but is lofted in the same degree as that of a 7-iron or 8-iron. A chipper allows the ball to pop into the air and then hit the ground rolling forward.


A putter is the most commonly used golf club. It is used to hit the ball in a rolling manner towards the hole. A complete putter set usually comes with a mallet putter or 1 blade putter. A standard putter has a size of between 33 to 35 inches long. When a player is experiencing trouble with using a standard putter, a broomstick putter or a belly putter will come in handy. The broomstick and belly putter are longer putter clubs and they can provide the player with an improved putting stroke. A putter has a flat face and gives minimal or no loft at all.

All these types of golf clubs are available at You can get them at discounted prices because every day is a sale day. You can browse through a wide selection of golf clubs. You can even make your own custom made golf club that will perfectly suit your individual needs. All you need to do is visit and create an account so you can place your order. If you are not confident in doing your business online, you can call their customer service hotline so you can order by phone.

What to Look for While Purchasing a Neck Lanyard

Has the time arrived for you to purchase lanyards for your organization or company? There is likely a chance that you might not know what to look for while purchasing this new item. You can find neck mowiHmQeVbdtGgDkjepINzQlanyards in a couple of different styles now a days, which can make it quite difficult for you to know exactly what you are looking for. That said, here are a couple of things that you should always look into whenever you are thinking of buying lanyards

1. What is your required style for the neck lanyard?

And how long do you prefer your neck lanyards to be?
You can get lanyards in a lot of different styles, thus there might be a lot to choose from. Two of the most commonly used are the flat braid lanyards and the round braid lanyards, and thus if you are looking for something a bit too simple, these two might be the best option you would get. And if you are one of those environmentally friendly type of people, you can always check out the eco-friendly lanyards that are mostly made up of bamboo or recycled plastic. Another great option that you can always look into is the OpiWeave and the OptiBraid lanyards in which you get the option to detach the ID badge while still wearing the lanyard. There are also the awareness lanyards that you can choose, showing your businesses support to curing cancer or aids. Then, there are also the beaded or imitation leather lanyards that you can always choose from that is if you are looking for something more fashionable. The second thing that you should keep in mind once you have decided which style you want is the length of the lanyard. The standard length is 36” while the standard widths are 5/8” and 3/8”.

2. The not to break away and break away styles.

There are two different main styles that lanyards are available in – you have the non-breakaway and the breakaway styles. The breakaway lanyards are much more safer to wear compared to their counterparts, because if the lanyards are caught up in something, the breakaway clasps open, so it does not injure the person wearing it, and if safety can be a big issue for you at your workplace, these types of lanyards would be your best lanyard option. They are quite common in schools, hospitals prisons and court houses.

3. The finishing touch

One of the most important things that you need to look into while purchasing lanyards is the finishing touch. Keep in mind that the end of a lanyard can eight be sewn, can have a bead on it or even bes-l300 crimped. And if the lanyard is crimped you can either choose between a black oxide crimp or a nickel plated crimped. You always have the option to choose the one you like the most.

4. The attachment

It all comes down to how to plan to get the ID cards attached to your lanyard. There are a lot of different kinds of attachments that you can always choose from, while some of the simplest that you can always look into are the split key ring attachment or the lanyard hook. As for the OptiWeave and OptiBraid lanyards they have their own kinds of attachments which may also include the cell phone holder and much other cool stuff.

5. Some other options

Whenever you may be choosing your lanyard there are always some other options that you also may want to look into, such as its color, if you are purchasing a lanyard for your company you may want to choose to just customized it with the company’s logo, name or both or none of them.
Now once you have finally decided which neck lanyard you want to purchase, it shouldn’t be too difficult to buy.